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Mariah Elizabeth Stern, Hebron. Andrew James Sprenger, Mapleton. We developed a simple assay to measure fly resistance to the sedative effect of ethanol vapor also see Materials and Methods. Two pairs of neurons arrowheads and nerve terminals in the fan-shaped body arrow show NPF immunoreactivity. The Student-Newman-Keuls test was used for analyzing data of all behavioral assays. The active flies remained on the top, and sedated flies that dropped to the bottom were counted at 5-min intervals.

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Willis for critical reading of the manuscript.

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Jacqueline R Zachmeier, Mandan. Jeremiah Kenneth Jones, Dickinson. Alcohol induces an excitatory state at lower concentrations but exerts a sedative effect at higher doses 12. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Arianna Renee Skoog, Minneapolis, Minn.

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Stevens University of Texas, Austin for providing deitcher lines and J. In an effort to determine whether the NPF signaling system is capable of responding to diverse external deitfhert, we tested how flies deficient in NPF signaling respond to ethanol vapor.

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In this case, sealing of the vials is optional because ethanol vapor rapidly reaches the intoxicating level in the vial. USA 90 Steven Milton Satermo, Broomfield, Colo. Ann Janine Koppinger, Dickinson. The error bars indicate SEM in all figures.

The same five groups of flies were also tested in the presence of a higher ethanol dose. The NPF neuronal circuit offers a useful platform to test the physiological relevance of these targets in alcohol response. Lijia Li, Flushing, N. Edited by Richard D. We found that experimental flies npf-gal4 X UAS- npf and controls e. Twenty sedated flies were kept in a ml plastic vial, sedated after 12 min of exposure, and monitored over a min period for recovery.

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Furthermore, deitchertt number of cell membrane proteins have been deitcherrt identified as potential molecular targets of volatile anesthetics 3 NPF-containing arbors were also found in two lateral areas of the lower part of the central brain that appear to harbor the giant commissural interneurons of the giant fiber pathway Mammalian neuropeptide Y NPY is a 36 aa neuromodulator present abundantly in many regions of the CNS, and acts thorough a number of Y receptor subtypes 5.

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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Timothy Scott Hamburger, Richardton. Shelby Robert Brouillette, Aurora, Colo. All flies were initially active and flew to the deitchdrt top. We postulate that the NPF system might play a broad role in modulating fly behavioral responses to diverse chemical cues. Joshua John Russell, Dickinson.

Published online Jan Ronald John Havelka, Dickinson. Ahmed Noor Ali, Minniapolis, Minn. These results provide genetic evidence of a critical role of the NPY signaling system in acute ethanol response.

Extensive arborizations were observed at several regions in dfitchert posterior side of the central brain, whereas no NPF immunoactivity was detected in the optical lobes.

C The alcohol sensitivity of experimental and control flies was determined under the same conditions as above. Typically, 20 females were used for each trial. Tammy Jean Schuh, Dickinson.

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